EKG++ main screen

EKG++: interactive vectorcardiography learning software with animations of body surface potential maps.

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The X, Y, and Z signals of the Frank-lead system are displayed in the form of dynamic vectorcardiograms in four different referential systems: 3D, frontal plane, horizontal plane, and left sagittal plane. A different color is assigned for each of the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave.

Body surface potential mapping
Body surface potential maps are generated using the heart dipole theory and a realistic torso model. The heart position is calculated to minimize the error between the simulated electric potential and the potential recorded by the chest electrodes.

Learning cases
The library consists of 32 real cases divided into five sections: normal variants (7 cases), myocardial infarction (12 cases), bundle-branch block (7 cases), ventricular hypertrophy (3 cases), and Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern (3 cases).

Test cases
Fifty standard 12-lead EKG tracings are included for practice. Navigation through the cases is straightforward and answers are provided.

The help includes chapters that introduce the basis of electrocardiography, some important concepts such as the cardiac dipole and the electrical axis of the heart, vectorcardiography, and ECG diagnoses related to the learning cases covered in the software.

One torso model that fits all cases is used to simulate the body surface potential mappings. Due to inter-individual variations in the thorax shape and chest electrode positions, the calculated electric potential does not always correspond to the recorded potential. However, the overall picture of the mappings during the time course of the electrocardiogram is preserved.

System requirements